Help to use the Mobiliscope

1) Preliminary notes

Initial data come from Origin-Destination surveys (from 2009 to 2019). Once transformed, these data have been used to estimate the present population in every district at exact hours (04.00, 05.00 etc.) during a typical weekday (Monday-Friday).

Number and proportion of present population aggregated by district and hour are estimation : they are subject to statistical margins of error.

58 city regions(spread over 5 countries) are included in the actual version of the Mobiliscope (v4.1).
To choose the city region you want to observe, please selection the city region in the drop-down menu or use the magnify tool from a search by name.

2) Select a map

In the left-hand menu, you can choose indicator (classified into broad families such as demographic or social profile) and its map representation - eitheir as aof the total population, or number or flows.
To get informations about indicators, click button on the right side.


With flows maps you get number of non-resident people at district level. With links (displayed on mouseover), you can see their district of residence (not available on touch screens).


3) Change hours

At the top of the screen, click play button in the timeline to animate map and graphics according to the 24 hours of the day.


4) Explore a specific district

Select one district by clicking on the map.


Have a look at the chart entitled "In the selected district" where you can follow hourly variations of present population (for each group of the selected indicator) in the district under consideration. Colours have the same colour code than in the indicator menu. Here, last transportation mode used by present population in the selected district was coloured in blue for public transportation, in pink for private motor vehicle and in green for soft mobility.


By clicking on 'Unique' mode, you can limit representation of the hourly variations for only one subgroup :


5) Explore spatial segregation

The block of graphs entitled "In the whole region" displays two segregation indices computed from every district of the region for each hour of the day.

Duncan Index (also called Dissimilarity Index) measures the evenness with which a specific population subgroup is distributed across districts in a whole region. This index score can be interpreted as the percentage of people belonging to the subgroup under consideration that would have to move to achieve an even distribution in the whole region.


The example above displays, hour by hour, the Duncan Index (Paris region - 2010) for to present people residing in or outside 'Poverty Areas'. Duncan index range from 0 to 1. A Duncan Segregation Index value of 0 occurs when the share of present people residing in 'Poverty Areas' in every district is the same as the share of people residing in 'Poverty Areas' in the whole region. Conversely, a Duncan Segregation Index value of 1 occurs when each district gathers only one of the two population subgroups. In our example, Duncan value is found to be higher between 8pm and 7am, indicating a stronger segregation at night (further away from an even distribution): this corresponds to the hours when most of the individuals are at home or in their district of residence. The value of the index decreases during the day: because of their mobility, people residing in and outside of 'Poverty Areas' are more mixed (situation closer to even distribution).

By clicking on the "Moran" button, a second graph is displayed with the Moran index which measures the similarity of the profiles of the population present for the neighbouring districts.


The Moran index values vary from -1 to +1: the closer its value is to 1, the more similar the spatially close districts are (with same distribution of the present subgroup under consideration); the closer its value is to -1, the more dissimilar the spatially close districts are (with different distribution of the present subgroup under consideration). When the Moran index value is 0, no similarity/dissimilarity pattern between neighbouring districts appears in the whole region. In our example, the Moran index values are positive and increase during the day: it means that spatial blocks of similar districts (according to the proportion of inhabitants of 'Poverty Areas') are formed during the day. This result does not contradict Duncan's index but complements it: people residing in 'Poverty Areas' visit during the day other districts than their residential district but tend to visit districts close to each other. And the same is true for people residing outside 'Poverty Areas'

It should be noted that in the case of an indicator subdivided into two groups (eg. male/female or people residing in/outside 'Poverty Areas'), Duncan and Moran values are the same for the two groups and therefore the curves are overlapping.

For more information on the two indices used (Duncan et Moran), click help button next to the index name.

6) Change map backgrounds

By clicking on the button in the central map, several layers can be displayed to make it easier to find your way around the interactive map: a simple base map (default layer), a more detailed one and aerial photos.

osm-simple osm-setail satellite

According to the city region under consideration, some other layers can also be displayed such as 'Poverty Areas' in French cities or urban/peripheral rings in Latin American cities.

osm-simple couronne

7) Download data

Data displayed in the Mobiliscope are under open license (ODbL). Mobiliscope data are reusable as they remain under open license and that the sources are mentioned.

By clicking on the button above the central map, you can download data aggregated data by district and by hour. By clicking on the button in the bottom graph, you can also download data about hourly segregation values (Duncan's or Moran's index) computed for the whole region over the 24 hours period.

To go further

To get more information about indicators and data which are currently used and displayed in the Mobiliscope, you can read Data, Indicators or Geovizualisation pages.


Version history

Mobiliscope is a constantly evolving tool since the first version went online in 2017.

v1. v2. [2017]

The first two versions concerned the Paris Region.

  • v1 [May 2017]
    The first version (only in English) allows to explore the population present over 24 hours of the day according to three indicators (total population, level of education and socioprofessional status of the household) with two modes of representation (choropleth maps and proportional symbol maps). The studied population is over 16 years of age. A central map displays the population present in the different districts of the region. A first chart shows the segregation indices (Duncan and Moran) for the whole region, a second chart shows the present population present in the district selected in the map.

  • v2 [September 2017]
    In the second version, six new indicators are included (sex, age, income, occupational status, residential areas and activity). Flows (from residential districts) are added.

v3. [2019-2020]

A bilingual interface (French/English) is proposed. A new indicator for the last mode of transportation is added. The age of the studied population is now set at 16 years and older.
New city regions from France but also from Canada are added to increase geographical coverage.

  • v3.1. [March 2019]
    21 French cities are added.

  • v3.2. [December 2019]
    With one more French city region (Nîmes).

  • v3.3. [April 2020]
    6 Canadian cities are included. In Canadian cities, indicators are slightly less numerous (sex, age, income, occupational status, activity carried out and last mode of transport used) but population sample size is larger.

v4. [2021-2022]

The fourth version of the tool undergoes a major overhaul of its graphic and cartographic interface. New cities and functionalities are added.
Access to data is facilitated: users can download most of the weighted and aggregated data by time and district, as displayed in the Mobiliscope. These data are made available under ODbL free license: users are free to use and adapt these data as long as they attribute the original sources and redistribute a version of their adapted database under the ODbL license. Finally, new cities are added.

  • v4.0 [April 2021]
    • Addition of 25 new French cities/regions such as Rouen, Metz, Besançon, Brest, Le Havre, Poitiers and Tours but also the territories of Martinique and La Réunion.
    • Provision of weighted and aggregated data by hour and by district for French cities.
    • Integration of 2 new indicators: (1) residents/non-residents of the area; (2) living (yes/no) in a 'Poverty Areas' (i.e.i> Quartiers Priortaires en Politique de la Ville - QPV). For France only.
    • Addition of a new mode of representation (present population density - people per km²) is now available for the 'Whole population' indicator.
    • OpenStreetMap tiles can be displayed to explore cities more easily.
    • Change of threshold values. It was also decided to change the threshold previously applied to the maps and charts of the non-resident population (flow mode). We removed the threshold of 12 respondents below which no information was displayed (number of non-residents and flows between districts of presence and residence). A new threshold of 6 respondents is now applied and concern only flows between districts of presence and residence.
    • Further changes: data for Valenciennes region have been updated from the EMC² 2019 survey ; 18 peripheral districts for the Bordeaux region (2009) have been added ; corrections were made on estimates of the present populations in Canadian cities; Deletion of the display of segregation indices for the indicators 'activities' and 'mode of transport'.

  • v4.1 [April 2022]
    • Addition of 3 new Latin American cities/regions: Bogotá (Colombia), Santiago (Chile) and São Paulo (Brazil), with the addition of specific indicators and associated layers (e.g. indicator on informal work, TransMilenio network in Bogotá)
    • Provision of weighted and aggregated data by hour and by district for Latin America as well as for Canadian cities.
    • Development of the Spanish interface to offer a trilingual interface (French, English, Spanish).
    • Integration of an indicator regarding the household composition of respondents for the 58 Mobiliscope cities/regions.
    • Display of satellite and/or aerial images to help the user find his way around the cities.
    • Readjustment of the calculation of hours of presence. This readjustment induces a shift of one hour in the presence data compared to the data displayed in the previous versions of the tool: present population observed in a district at a time h was previously observed at h-1.
    • Specification of URLs corresponding to displayed geovisualisations. For example, the proportion of women in Bogotá at 8am in the La Candelaria district can now be displayed directly with this URL. Possibility to share specific geovisualisation using the 'Share view' button .
    • Improvement of the search tool by municipality/city name : district associated with the searched commune is now automatically selected in the geovisualization (selection of the district in the map and the top chart).
    • Modification of the last main mode of transport for Canadian cities: in case of multimodal trips, the last main mode of transport is now defined following this priority order: 1) Collective transportation; 2) Individual motor vehicle and 3) Soft mobility. This priority order is now similar to the one adopted for French and Latin American cities


New features are being considered.

  • Propose an expert mode for geovisualization
  • Integrate data on mobility during the Covid pandemic and lockdown periods
  • Propose territorial classifications according to districts hourly rhythms
  • ...

Join the team !

Contact us if you want to participate to the development of this open-source tool. You are welcome!