Help to use the Mobiliscope

1) Preliminary notes

Initial data come from Origin-Destination surveys (from 2009 to 2019). Once transformed, these data have been used to estimate the present population in every district at exact hours (04.00, 05.00 etc.) during a typical weekday (Monday-Friday).

Number and proportion of present population aggregated by district and hour are estimation : they are subject to statistical margins of error.

58 city regions(spread over 5 countries) are included in the actual version of the Mobiliscope (v4.1).
To choose the city region you want to observe, please selection the city region in the drop-down menu or use the magnify tool from a search by name.

2) Select a map

In the left-hand menu, you can choose indicator (classified into broad families such as demographic or social profile) and its map representation - eitheir as aof the total population, or number or flows.
To get informations about indicators, click button on the right side.


With flows maps you get number of non-resident people at district level. With links (displayed on mouseover), you can see their district of residence (not available on touch screens).


3) Change hours

At the top of the screen, click play button in the timeline to animate map and graphics according to the 24 hours of the day.


4) Explore a specific district

Select one district by clicking on the map.


Have a look at the chart entitled "In the selected district" where you can follow hourly variations of present population (for each group of the selected indicator) in the district under consideration. Colours have the same colour code than in the indicator menu. Here, last transportation mode used by present population in the selected district was coloured in blue for public transportation, in pink for private motor vehicle and in green for soft mobility.


By clicking on 'Unique' mode, you can limit representation of the hourly variations for only one subgroup :


5) Explore spatial segregation

The block of graphs entitled "In the whole region" displays two segregation indices computed from every district of the region for each hour of the day.

Duncan Index (also called Dissimilarity Index) measures the evenness with which a specific population subgroup is distributed across districts in a whole region. This index score can be interpreted as the percentage of people belonging to the subgroup under consideration that would have to move to achieve an even distribution in the whole region.


The example above displays, hour by hour, the Duncan Index (Paris region - 2010) for to present people residing in or outside 'Poverty Areas'. Duncan index range from 0 to 1. A Duncan Segregation Index value of 0 occurs when the share of present people residing in 'Poverty Areas' in every district is the same as the share of people residing in 'Poverty Areas' in the whole region. Conversely, a Duncan Segregation Index value of 1 occurs when each district gathers only one of the two population subgroups. In our example, Duncan value is found to be higher between 8pm and 7am, indicating a stronger segregation at night (further away from an even distribution): this corresponds to the hours when most of the individuals are at home or in their district of residence. The value of the index decreases during the day: because of their mobility, people residing in and outside of 'Poverty Areas' are more mixed (situation closer to even distribution).

By clicking on the "Moran" button, a second graph is displayed with the Moran index which measures the similarity of the profiles of the population present for the neighbouring districts.


The Moran index values vary from -1 to +1: the closer its value is to 1, the more similar the spatially close districts are (with same distribution of the present subgroup under consideration); the closer its value is to -1, the more dissimilar the spatially close districts are (with different distribution of the present subgroup under consideration). When the Moran index value is 0, no similarity/dissimilarity pattern between neighbouring districts appears in the whole region. In our example, the Moran index values are positive and increase during the day: it means that spatial blocks of similar districts (according to the proportion of inhabitants of 'Poverty Areas') are formed during the day. This result does not contradict Duncan's index but complements it: people residing in 'Poverty Areas' visit during the day other districts than their residential district but tend to visit districts close to each other. And the same is true for people residing outside 'Poverty Areas'

It should be noted that in the case of an indicator subdivided into two groups (eg. male/female or people residing in/outside 'Poverty Areas'), Duncan and Moran values are the same for the two groups and therefore the curves are overlapping.

For more information on the two indices used (Duncan et Moran), click help button next to the index name.

6) Change map backgrounds

By clicking on the button in the central map, several layers can be displayed to make it easier to find your way around the interactive map: a simple base map (default layer), a more detailed one and aerial photos.

osm-simple osm-setail satellite

According to the city region under consideration, some other layers can also be displayed such as 'Poverty Areas' in French cities or urban/peripheral rings in Latin American cities.

osm-simple couronne

7) Download data

Data displayed in the Mobiliscope are under open license (ODbL). Mobiliscope data are reusable as they remain under open license and that the sources are mentioned.

By clicking on the button above the central map, you can download data aggregated data by district and by hour. By clicking on the button in the bottom graph, you can also download data about hourly segregation values (Duncan's or Moran's index) computed for the whole region over the 24 hours period.

To go further

To get more information about indicators and data which are currently used and displayed in the Mobiliscope, you can read Data, Indicators or Geovizualisation pages.


A scientific tool

The Mobiliscope falls within several scientific fields (eg. geography, sociology, transportation, economy) and draws notably upon the 'time-geography' approach.

In literature on social segregation or neighbourhood effects, daily mobility remains understudied. While social scientists have invested a lot of energy in exploring the uneven distribution of social groups in the city, they have surprisingly limited their efforts to investigating the social composition of the residential population. Yet, daily commuting can (i) lead people to be exposed to neighbourhoods other than their neighbourhoods of residence alone and (ii) cause changes in the social composition of neighbourhoods. Rather than considering neighbourhoods as necessarily frozen over a 24h period, the Mobiliscope can help removing ‘clock blinders’ and to explicitly consider the daycourse of place for a better understanding of inequalities (education, employment, health, etc.).

A large range of thematical and methodological fields are actually concerned.

  • Hourly maps and charts displayed in the Mobiliscope can be explored to highlight to what extent urban experiences vary around the clock but also across age group, gender and social class.
  • A large range of city regions can also be compared according to their segregation level not only at night but also during the day.
  • Data issued from the Mobiliscope can also feed simulation models and agent-based models (ABM) in which spatial-temporal data on population trips or presences benefit from being integrated to simulate dynamics over hours, and ultimately over years.
  • Last example: When assessing area-based interventions and their efficiency, it could be interesting to take into consideration the spatio-temporal locations of the people in need of support (instead of just their residential locations).

"Target areas for public interventions aiming to reach people"
in Challenges in targeting areas for public action. Target areas at the right place and at the right time.